Some of these host plants such as the Tree Senna (C. corymbosa), Candle Bush (C. alata) and Desert Bird of Paradise (C. gilliesii) may be available through the nursery industry. Shumway SW, Letcher SL, Friberg A, DeMelo D. (February 2009). I usually find Phoebis philea on this plant, but this year I found only P. sennae. The Johns Hopkins University Press. caterpiller. Gainesville, Florida. The cloudless sulphur caterpillar eats legumes such as Cassia and Senna plants. Cloudless Sulphur adult - Phoebis sennae Some of our more common and beautiful butterflies of Reduced planting of soybeans and more use of herbicides to control sicklepod in soybean fields may have caused, or at least contributed to, the decline. Drifts of Common Partridge Pea make for good Cloudless Sulphur habitat. Unless the female assumed a "mate refusal" posture (open wings and raised abdomen) the male landed beside her with his head pointing in the same direction as hers. Cloudless Sulphur (Phoebis sennae): Partridge Pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata), Sensitive Pea (Chamaecrista nictitans), Candle-Stick Tree (Senna alata), Argentine Senna (Senna corymbosa), Wild Senna (Senna marilandica), Sickle-Pod (Senna obtusifolia) Coffee Senna (Senna occidentalis). Cloudless Sulphur caterpillars green color provides the best camouflage during the summer months. Partridge pea, Chamaecrista fasciculata, a host of the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus). Cloudless sulphur larvae eat the foliage, buds and flowers of ornamental sennas. Mt. Male, Lenoir Co., NC 8/25/02. (Cloudless Sulphur caterpillar hanging out on its host plant Chamaecrista fasciculata) Also known as Showy Partridge Pea, Sensitive Plant, and Sleepingplant, Patridge Pea is native from southern Florida to northern Minnesota, It looks best when planted in groups and is easy to include in most medium to large size gardens. Barton AM. Zone: 4 to 9 . Candlestick plant, Senna alata, a host of the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus). Throughout this time the male flapped his wings. Green larva of the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus). A recently pupated cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus). Both the caterpillar stages and adults of the orange-barred sulphur are dimorphic (types … We immediately recognized a Cloudless Sulphur Caterpillar, Phoebis sennae, but we do not have any Cassia growing anywhere near. Two Cloudless Sulphurs .. October 2005 . 258 pp. Figure 18. Caterpillar Hosts: Cassia species in the pea family (Fabaceae). Eggs usually hatch in about one week. Photograph by Donald Hall, University of Florida. Extrafloral nectary of narrowpod sensitive pea, Chamaecrista lineata, a host of the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus). Chrysalis. Photograph by Marc C. Minno, University of Florida. Cloudless Sulphur Butterfly Caterpillar butterfliesandmoths.org Cloudless Sulphur Larvae bugguide.net. Cloudless Sulphur Butterfly. In Louisiana, the primary host is the Partridge pea, Chamaecrista cinerea). Photograph by Marc C. Minno, University of Florida. Wild times in August. Life cycle. It is best to find out which plant species are native to your area and plant those rather than exotic species. Lantana •Lantana camara Shrimp Plant •Justicia brandegeeana Tithonia •Tithonia rotundifolia Partridge Pea •Chamaecrista fasciculata Sicklepod •Senna obtusifolia Wild senna •Senna hebecarpa Wild Sensitive Chamaecrista nictitans. First instar larva of the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus), emerging from egg. Valamuerto, Senna pendula var. Adult butterflies favour the nectar of milkweeds, pentas, azaleas, autumn sage, Mexican sage, dewdrops, hibiscus and wild morning glory. Permanent traps for monitoring butterfly migration: tests in Florida, 1979-84, Butterfly migration from and to peninsular Florida, Butterfly migrations in Florida: seasonal patterns and long-term changes, Butterfly migration in the southeastern USA, Orientation of fall migrating butterflies in north peninsular Florida and source areas. And if you are observant, you will get to see some of these larvae become butterflies. The caterpillar will usually grow to a length between 41 and 45 mm (1.6 and 1.8 in). Fall and winter observations of butterflies in Florida south of Gainesville suggest that nearly all migrants stop before reaching the latitude of Lake Okeechobee (Lenczewski 1992). The caterpillar also has some small black dots on its back. Sleepy Oranges use the same food plants for their caterpillars, and I have so far seen the same preference for Wild Senna rather than Partridge Pea at this location. Eventually it will turn to a pale orange. Gainesville, FL. Caldwell Nursery carries host food plants and nectar plants for most butterflies native to the greater Houston / Rosenberg area. They have relatively long tongues and can reach the nectar of some tubular flowers that some other butterflies cannot (May 1992). Butterflies of the East Coast: An Observer's Guide. In the spring, surviving adults head northward and soon repopulate the summer breeding areas. It's been great fun (as well as rewarding) to have a new butterfly garden (that emphasizes host plants as well as nectar plants) at the Botanical Garden where I work. In Florida, they frequently nectar at the red morning-glories, scarlet creeper (Ipomoea hederifolia) and cypressvine (Ipomoea quamoclit) (Convolvulaceae), and also at scarlet sage, Salvia coccinea (Lamiaceae). Search. Red flowers are preferred (Glassberg et al. Florida Keys sensitive pea, Chamaecrista deeringii 2. The University of North Carolina Press. Cloudless Sulphur Genus-Species: Phoebis sennae Host Plants: The host plant may be partridge pea (Chamaecrista cinerea), sennas (Senna), clovers (Trifolium), or other legumes (Fabaceae). 256 pp. Yellow larva of the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus). Rutowski RL. Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui): An incredibly wide range of host plants from many different families. Herbaceous perennial . Habitat: Senna plant in a suburban yard. If you want to support butterflies in your landscape, include both host and nectar plants to provide for their needs across the lifecycle. Like Sleepy Oranges, Cloudless Sulphurs are primarily a tropical species. Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, Franck AR, Essig FB. Photograph by Marc C. Minno, University of Florida. Kopter S, Pena JE, Grogan WL. Butterfly host plant for. Cloudless Sulphur Butterfly Host Plant entnemdept.ufl.edu, Cloudless Sulphur Butterfly carolinanature.com, Your email address will not be published. Photograph by Donald Hall, University of Florida. The chrysalis's green color and arched shape helps to further disguise the developing butterfly. Ecology 67: 495-504. Winter form adults probably undergo reproductive diapause (Opler and Krizek 1984). 2003. Photograph by Marc C. Minno, University of Florida. The Cloudless Sulphur Butterfly is a species of medium-sized, bright yellow butterflies that are spread across a large area covering the two Americas, in three different subspecies. Where did it come from? Habitat: Open areas, including prairies, old fields, roadsides, and gardens. Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services. Heppner JB. Figure 14. 1986. Males patrol for females throughout the day (Cech and Tudor 2005) and especially around nectar plants (May 1985). In cloudless sulphurs, quantitative comparisons of the fall and spring flights have been made based on the catches of passive flight traps (Walker 1985). Leguminosae (Fabaceae). Habitat: Open areas, including prairies, old fields, roadsides, and gardens. On fine days in the fall, in the Southeast, any butterfly watcher driving an east-west road through open country will likely see these bright yellow butterflies crossing the road and can confirm that they are crossing much more frequently from north to south than from south to north. New Hanover Co., NC 8/27/05. Host Plants; Milkweeds; Moth; Nectar Plants; Products search. May PG. The male initiated courtship by making contact with the female's wings either with his wings or legs. Both Cloudless Sulphurs and Sleepy Oranges seem to prefer using younger plants as caterpillar host plants. The Cloudless Sulphur's chrysalis blends in with the surrounding leaves of its host plant. Cut seed heads off if you don’t want it to reseed. Partridge pea is one of several similar native wild peas that are a host plant for the clouded sulphur butterfly caterpillars. Caterpillar. Figure 2. Figure 25. They like "weeds." Native Midwestern and southeastern U.S. The host plant may be partridge pea (Chamaecrista cinerea), sennas (Senna), clovers (Trifolium), or other legumes (Fabaceae). The green version is from eating the leaves of the host plant whereas the yellow larva occurs … Figure 17. Their host plants are Cassia/Senna plants in the pea family. Native Midwestern and southeastern U.S. Howard County Conservancy. Larvae: The larvae are green with yellow lateral lines and blue patches and transverse bands of tiny blue spots bearing black setae. Photograph by Jerry Butler, University of Florida. Figure 16. partridge pea, Chamaecrista fasciculata. They normally land on a leaf or item that is very near the same color as their wings. Cloudless sulphurs may be found in all habitats when migrating, but breed in disturbed open areas where their caterpillar host plants and nectar plants are found. A rare treat for Ohio and a first for my yard, a Cloudless Sulphur nectaring on Impatiens on the waterfall of my pond in early September 2006. So helping the clouded sulphur is a great excuse to leave dandelions and clover in your yard. Photograph by Donald Hall, University of Florida. chapmanii, a host of the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus). 2006) and probably also gain some protection from Phoebis sennae larvae and other herbivores. Figure 15. The egg stage lasts six days. Photograph by Donald Hall, University of Florida. From South America to the southern parts of Canada (most common in Argentina to southern regions of Texas, Georgia, and Florida in the US), Prefer open spaces, seashores, water bodies, glades, and gardens, Legume plants including partridge pea, sennas, and clovers. Florida Keys sensitive pea, Chamaecrista deeringii. Cech R, Tudor G. 2005. The cloudless sulphur is widspread in the southern United States, and it strays northward to Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana and New Jersey (Minno et al. B80A2190 Cloudless Sulphur Butterfly (Phoebis sennae) on host plant flower 294 pp. In spring, their catch revealed a much smaller migration with 17 more flying northward than flying southward. The specific epithet, sennae is for the genus Senna to which many of the cloudless sulphur's larval host plants belong. Figure 20. Figure 3. New York, New York. Pupae may be either green or pink with yellow lines (Minno and Minno 1999). Not all Lepidoptera are entirely exclusive when it comes to which plants should host their eggs, but many have clear preferences. The arrow points to the silk created by the industrious creature. Rutowski (1983) studied the mating behavior of cloudless sulphurs by tethering reared females to host plants (that were visited by both females and males) with threads and filming the mating sequence. On the chrysalis are white or green lines that look like the veins of a leaf. 2006), and there are conflicting reports regarding the existence of characteristic extrafloral nectaries on Senna alata. aspera, a host of the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus). The caterpillar will usually grow to a length between 41 and 45 mm (1.6 and 1.8 in). These are initially white and turn pale orange, before hatching into a larva within six days. Introduction and Catalog. Photograph by Marc C. Minno, University of Florida. We were shocked to see this bright yellow caterpillar meandering across the patio. This one has just emerged from its chrysalis. Nectar production by stipules is also reported for Cassia reticulata Willdenow (Mexzón and Chinchilla 2003). Butterfly migration through the Florida peninsula. Adult female cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus), ventral view. As reported by Walker (2001), the fall migrations of cloudless sulphurs through Gainesville declined sharply between 1984 and 2000. 2000. Senna alata does produce nectar at its stipules, and ants are attracted to the stipules (Miguel Cid personal communication). Glassberg J, Minno C, Calhoun JV. Eggs are laid singly on young leaves or flower buds of host plants and the caterpillars eat leaves and rest on underside of leaf petioles. Females have a narrow black border on the wings and a dark spot in the middle of the front wing. 3 to 6 feet tall and 2 to 3 feet wide. We often talk about the need to keep some “weeds” in your yard as habitat and food sources, and the clouded sulphur needs two of the most dreaded “weeds.” Adults love dandelions, and its caterpillar’s host plant is white clover. Host and Nectar Plants These host plants have been verified in Alabama: Common Partridge Pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata), Common Sensitive Plant (Chamaecrista nictitans), Coffeeweed/Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia). < Cloudless sulphur larva on Desert Senna plant Danielle Carlock During the day, they hide in a “tent” made of cassia leaves webbed together with silk. Clouded sulphurs are common, but they are quite small so they may be overlooked. Figure 27. Ants have been observed removing eggs and small larvae of Phoebis sennae from Chamaecrista fasciculata (Barton 1986). Photograph by Donald Hall, University of Florida. Photograph by Donald Hall, University of Florida. Males sometimes drink from mud. Cloudless Sulphur on Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa) laying egg opposite leaf where a Sleepy Orange caterpillar is hiding These two butterfly species have a lot in common. The chrysalis is green or yellow, with stripes in green or pink, and has a bizarre shape in order to camouflage with the leaves of their hosts, with a humped middle part and pointed at the ends. Photograph by Deborah Lott, University of Florida. Vol. Caterpillar-Friendly Gardening We’ve been conditioned to think of caterpillers and other crawling creatures as “pests,” but those feelings of alarm upon seeing caterpillars on our favorite plants can easily change to excitement and appreciation. Sep 16, 2020 - cloudless sulphur love. Vascular Flora of the Southeastern United States. Princeton University Press. 670 pp. Some of the big butterfly and bee favorited at the park. Males are seasonally dimorphic with winter forms being larger and with darker markings ventrally (Opler and Krizek 1984). Distribution The cloudless sulphur is widspread in the southern United States, and it strays northward to Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana and New Jersey (Minno et al. Cloudless Sulphur butterflies are found in almost all of the mainland United States. Sexual Dimorphism: Not significantly visible. The colour of the cloudless sulphur caterpillar is based on the feeding pattern. Figure 4. If you are raising caterpillars and you happen to run out of caterpillar food, you should be successful in changing their food source as long as it is in their group of host plants. keyensis. Egg. These traps are successful because when cloudless sulphurs migrate through open areas most fly within 3 meters of the ground, and when they encounter a major obstacle, such as a house, they rise and fly over it rather than deviating from their migratory direction. Head is to the left. Your email address will not be published. The extrafloral nectaries of Chamaecrista species are cup-shaped with a concave central disc while those of most Senna species are bud-shaped or button-shaped and convex. The male then inserted the tip of his abdomen between the female's hind wings to couple with her. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Association 21: 135-137. Some of these host plants such as the Tree Senna (C. corymbosa), Candle Bush (C. alata) and Desert Bird of Paradise (C. gilliesii) may be available through the nursery industry. Photograph by Donald Hall, University of Florida. Shop/Butterfly/Cloudless Sulphur. Pleasant. In most years, some cloudless sulphurs probably successfully overwinter as far as 100 miles north of Gainesville, but in exceptionally frigid winters even Gainesville may have temperatures below 20°F that are likely lethal to cloudless sulphurs. Figure 24. Mexzón RG, Chinchilla CM. The Cloudless Sulfur Butterfly is often very busy in the garden rarely seeming to rest. Sleepy Oranges use the same food plants for their caterpillars, and I have so far seen the same preference for Wild Senna rather than Partridge Pea at this location. 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